**1.3 Design example – strut-tie model representing vertical truss mechanism**

1.3.1 Problem statement

In this section, the deep beam is designed by the strut-tie model representing the vertical truss load transfer mechanism shown in Fig. 1-1(b). As illustrated in the previous sections, the dimensions and the information on the bearing plates and loads are determined in the same way.

1.3.2 Construction of strut-tie model

The â€˜Beginning Modeâ€™ is switched to the â€˜Modeling Modeâ€™ to construct a strut-tie model for the deep beam. As the shear span-to-effective depth ratio of the deep beam is 1.27, the indeterminate strut-tie model that represents a combined load transfer mechanism is selected automatically from the template for deep beam. In this example, the strut-tie model representing an vertical truss load transfer mechanism as shown in Fig. 1-7 is constructed for design. The top and bottom horizontal elements are placed 127 mm and 102 mm away from the top and bottom surfaces of the deep beam, respectively.

Fig. 1-7 Constructed strut-tie model

1.3.3 Analysis of strut-tie model

The cross-sectional forces of struts and ties are determined by carrying out the finite element analysis of the constructed strut-tie model.

Fig. 1-8 Strut and tie forces

1.3.4 Strength verification and required rebars

1.3.4.1 Strength under bearing plates

The strength conditions under bearing plates are examined by the method illustrated in Section 1.2.4.1.

1.3.4.2 Required area of rebars

The required areas of main reinforcing bars are determined by the following equation. The requirement on the reinforcing bars is examined in the â€˜Design Reviewâ€™ as shown below.

*A _{s,req}* =

*F*/Â

_{u}*Ï†*

*f*Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (1-7)

_{y}where,

*Ï†* = strength reduction factor of steel tieÂ (= 0.75)

*F _{u}* = cross-sectional force of steel tie

*f*= yield strength of steelÂ (= 414Â MPa)

_{y}The spacing of shear reinforcing bars is determined by the following equation.

*Ï†F _{n}* = (

*Ï†*

*A*) / s

_{v}f_{y}w_{eff,tie}*â‰¥*

_{v}*F*Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (1-8)

_{u}where,

*Ï†* = strength reduction factor of steel tieÂ (= 0.75)

*A _{v}* = area of vertical shear reinforcement

*f*= yield strength of steelÂ (= 414Â MPa)

_{y}*w*= effective width of vertical tie (The half of the shear span is a default. A user can define the width in â€˜Assign-Outer Elementâ€™)

_{eff,tie}*F*= cross-sectional force of steel tie

_{u}

1.3.4.3 Strength verification of struts

The strength condition of a concrete strut is verified by comparing the required width with provided width of the concrete strut, as shown below.

The strength conditions of concrete struts can also be verified visually as shown below.

Fig. 1-9 Required/proposed area of concrete strut

1.3.4.4 Strength verification of nodal zones

The strength condition of a nodal zone is verified by comparing the required width with the provided width of the nodal zone boundary, as shown below.

1.3.5 Minimum rebars for crack control

Since the effective strength coefficient 0.75 was taken for the two inclined struts of the strut-tie model, the ACI 318M-14 requirement for minimum reinforcing bars for crack control must be satisfied.

âˆ‘ (*A _{si}* /

*b*) sin

_{s}s_{i}*Î³*â‰¥ 0.003 Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (1-9)

_{i}where *A _{si}* is the total area of distributed reinforcement at spacing

*s*in the

_{i}*i*-th direction of reinforcement crossing a strut at an angle

*Î±*to the axis of a strut, and

_{i}*b*is the width of the strut.

_{s}**Relative Contents**

**AStrutTie** Design Example – 1. Design of deep beams subjected to concentrated load (1)

**AStrutTie** Design Example – 1. Design of deep beams subjected to concentrated load (2)

**AStrutTie** Design Example – 1. Design of deep beams subjected to concentrated load (3)

**AStrutTie** Design Example – 1. Design of deep beams subjected to concentrated load (4)

**Example File**

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